Surface Of The Sun, The Photosphere And Electrically Driven Solar Flares
The University of
Leicester has been kind enough to produce
an excellent two minute
video that describes the Birkeland cathode solar model that is described on
this website. It explains the heat source of the solar corona, as well as
the Earth's aurora, and it empirically demonstrates the electrical interaction
between the sun and the Earth.
photosphere is often
mistakenly referred to as the surface of the sun. In reality however, the
sun's photosphere is only a "liquid-like" plasma double layer made of
mostly neon which covers
the actual surface of the sun. That bright visible layer that we see with our eyes is
that are several hundred kilometers deep. This visible neon plasma layer
that we call the photosphere, and a thicker, more dense atmospheric layer
composed of silicon plasma,
entirely covers the actual rocky, calcium
ferrite surface layer of the sun. The visible photosphere covers the actual surface of the sun, much as the earth's oceans cover most of the
surface of the earth. In this case the sun's photosphere is very
bright and we cannot see the darker,
more rigid surface features below the photosphere without the aid of
The composition and
mechanical inner workings of the sun beneath the visible photosphere have
remained an enigma for thousands of years. There are a whole host of
unexplained phenomena related to the sun's activities that still baffle gas
model theorists to this
day because they fail to recognize the existence of an iron alloy
transitional layer that rests beneath the visible photosphere. Fortunately
a host of new satellites and the
heliosiesmology are starting to shed new light on this mysterious
"stratification subsurface" layer of the sun that is located about 4800km beneath the visible
photosphere. In addition, recent studies of solar wind suggest that
solar wind also originates on the same transition layer under the photosphere
as do the
electrically charged coronal loops.
NASA's SOHO satellite and the Trace satellite program have both imaged this
transition layer of the sun that sits
photosphere. These 21st century satellites and
technologies now enable us to peer behind the outer plasma layers of the
chromosphere and photosphere and
allow us to study the rocky, calcium ferrite transitional layer with incredible
Galileo was the founding father of the gas
model theory of the sun. He observed the sun through a relatively
primitive telescope and
noticed that sunspots did
not rotate uniformly across the surface of the photosphere. He also observed that this
rotated at different speeds near the equator than it did near the poles.
From his study of sunspots and their uneven
rotation pattern, Galileo surmised that he must be looking at some type of gas
atmosphere. He was
correct in that assessment, although today we know that the photosphere is a form of
hot ionized plasma.
Unfortunately however, Galileo also "assumed" that no other solid layers existed, or
could exist, beneath the visible layer of the photosphere. That was a critical mistake. It was a bit like looking at a world
covered in water, and having no ability to see beneath the water, and then simply
assuming that the whole world is made of water.
Galileo did not
have multimillion dollar “eyes” and Doppler imaging systems to look beneath the
chaotic surface of the photosphere. Only in the past 10 years, a virtual
blink of an eye in scientific terms, have we had the technology to put Galileo's
assumption to the test with modern satellite observations. The Yohkoh, SOHO, Trace,
RHESSI, Hinode, Stereo and Geos satellite programs give us
new sets of eyes, new ways to view the sun, and new ways to peer beneath the layers
of the sun that Galileo first observed. The Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer space
telescopes give us eyes to peer into other solar systems and other galaxies and
enable us to look back at the original structures of our universe and see our
universe in all new spectrums of energy. What they reveal to us about the
structure of our universe is truly breathtaking.
While the gas model
has enjoyed popular support over the past 50 years, that has not always been the
case. In fact astronomers of 100 years ago believed in a predominantly
iron sun, most notably
Dr. Kristian Birkeland. Dr. Birkeland studied the Northern Lights and
became interested in the electrical interaction between the sun and the earth.
His early lab research with an electrified iron sphere suspended in a
vacuum ("terella") led to images that are remarkably similar to modern satellite x-ray
images of the sun. The bottom photo of this page shows the electrical
activity that Birkeland documented in his lab next to an image from the Yohkoh
satellite. The electrical arcs from the surface of both spheres is what
emits the x-rays and gamma rays seen in
RHESSI images of the sun.
difference imaging technique used by both NASA and Lockheed Martin have revealed
to us for the first time that the sun is not simply a ball of hydrogen gas; it has a
hard and rigid ferrite surface below the
visible photosphere that can be seen in all of the images on this page!
Each of the images was produced by
Lockheed Martin so you
can verify these images for yourself.
Just as Birkeland
surmised, it turns out that the sun has a
highly defined surface
that rotates (uniformly) every 27.3 days. Dr. Birkeland was at least
100 years ahead of his time.
corroboration of Dr. Birkeland's solar theories and laboratory experiments
came forty years later in the work of
Dr. Charles Bruce.
Dr. Bruce documented a number of solar atmospheric phenomenon that were directly
related to electrical discharges from the solar surface. Bruce confirmed
what Birkeland had predicted nearly fifty years earlier, showing that the
electrical activity was directly responsible for the high energy discharges from
the solar surface. The electrical discharge nature of the coronal loops
has since been
the University of Maryland.
corroborating set of data came a decade or so later from the work of
Dr. Oliver Manuel. Dr. Manuel
confirmed via isotope analysis of lunar soil samples, and the study of
meteorites, that the sun is predominantly made of iron and mass separates the
plasma in it's atmosphere. Unfortunately their hard efforts would not be
visually confirmed for another three decades.
It turns out however,
that modern satellite
images now lend very strong observational support to the electrical model of the sun
originally described by Dr. Kristian Birkeland
in the early 1900's and later verified by Dr. Charles Bruce and Dr. Oliver
Manuel. Dr. Charles
Bruce and a number of other scientists have already demonstrated the
electrical nature of the sun's activities and have put forth solid surface
theories of the sun based on predictions that are supported by direct
observation. These models simply never gained momentum and ultimately fell out of "style" in the
field of astronomy in mid
to late part of the 20th
century in favor of a gas model theory of the sun.
Fortunately science still enjoys a small minority of
dedicated scientists and maverick thinkers that have long promoted a very
different, very iron rich model of the sun
based on many decades of sound sweat equity, solid scientific research, and careful
In recent months, many of
Dr. Manuel's conclusions about our sun being composed of material from a
have been confirmed by direct evidence. It turns out that these visual
observations of an iron rich surface were predicted via the field of nuclear
chemistry more than three decades earlier, while the experiments to support
these ideas and many mathematical predictions had been verified over 50 years
ago and were originally predicted by Birkeland almost 100 years ago!
Studies of quasars in the early universe demonstrate the presence of
large quantities of iron, casting serious doubt on the gas model in recent
In addition, there is now growing evidence from the field of heliosiesmology that
the sun possesses a significant stratification layer at a very shallow depth from the top of the
photosphere. This new data suggest that the stratified iron surface is
covered by a relatively thin veneer of plasma layers.
It is also noteworthy
that an electrically active, rigid surface model of the sun has always been a valid alternative to the
current gas model theory. Only when hydrogen fusion was discovered did other
solar theories begin
to seem less "glamorous". It is important to note however that quite a
bit of research has already been conducted by Dr. Birkeland, Dr. Alfven, Dr. Bruce, and many others that is now supported by modern satellite imagery and
Sound interesting so
far? Have some objections perhaps? Please read on. I will present a lot of
evidence from the SOHO program in the form of raw DIT images and videos to
support these ideas. I will also provide videos and photos from the Yohkoh
satellites as well as other 21 century satellites in space to support these ides.
Unlike the gas model of the sun, this model is based on direct, real life
observations, not pure theory. A solid surface model of the sun is a lot more logical and a
better scientifically supported "observationally" than current gas models of the sun. More
importantly, current gas models of the sun simply do NOT explain the video images we
see through SOHO and TRACE. This website is dedicated in humble appreciation of the
incredible work done by the people at
You can click here to download a PDF manuscript
that has been offered for a general audience, and is more visually oriented. It is a condensed, and
easy to read presentation of this
You may also wish to download a
more scientifically oriented presentation of this material that has been peer
reviewed and was recently published in the Journal Of Fusion Energy.
This peer reviewed paper details the growing body of evidence from the field of nuclear chemistry
and from satellite technologies that
demonstrate that the sun acts to mass separate the various elements in the solar
atmosphere into distinct, mass separated layers. Recent
findings of an unexpectedly large source of energy from repulsive interactions
between neutrons in the 2,850 known nuclides has challenged the assumption that
H-fusion is the main source of energy that powers the Sun and other stars.
Recent findings from the field
of heliosiesmology demonstrate the existence of a double sided stratified layer,
that is located just under the photosphere. Just as we can see the
transition layer of the surface in satellite imagery, heliosiesmology allows us
to hear this same transition layer and even measure the thickness of the
transitional layer. In this case they find a double sided, stratified
layer that is centered at around .99R and begins at about .995R, or just under the surface of the
photosphere. Heliosiesmology allows us to hear and verify what we can see
in satellite images.
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